Despite many signs and symptoms the vast majority of subjects with Flammer syndrome are healthy. Actually they even seem to be protected to some extent against certain diseases such as arteriosclerosis and its complications. However, affected subjects have a slight increased risk for some other diseases.
Certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma, can even be induced (among other causes and together with other risk factors) by a Flammer Syndrome. However, most of the associated diseases are primarily caused by other factors such as mutation of a gene. Nevertheless, the Flammer syndrome can influence or modify manifestation and course of such diseases.
The following diseases are indeed seldom, but however often associated with Flammer Syndrome.
- Normal tension glaucoma (see next page)
- Retinal vein occlusions
- Increased retinal venous pressure
- Arterial occlusions in the retina, choroidea and optic nerve head
- Susac syndrom
- Optic nerve compartment syndrome
- Central serous chorioretinopathy
- Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy
- Retinitis pigmentosa
- Multiple sclerosis
- Sudden hearing loss
- Silent cardial ischemia
- Migraine with attendant symptoms (such as transient visual disturbances)
- Thyroid dysfunction
An example of an associated disease is retinal vein occlusion despite the absence of classical risk factors. Left: healthy retina; right: occlusion of a central retinal vein.