This webpage provides a brief introduction and an overview of the Flammer Syndrome to the interested people. We have provided scientific reference to each statement to improve the readability. 

The relevant literatures about this topic are not very homogeneous as the old term was used in the older publications. In addition to this, some publications are in English whereas some are in German. There are both review articles and original articles. Only part of the publications are freely accessible (so-called Open Access).

More literature you will find on: 

and especially:

The following list mainly focus on open access articles.

Terminology: The term Flammer syndrome was sporadically used earlier.

Flammer syndrome
Diseases related with Flammer syndrome  
Further reading about Flammer Syndrome
Description for MTAs 
Description of FS in Russian

Content: A detailed (easiliy understandable to ordinary people) description of the Flammer Syndrome is available in the fourth edition (German)


and a scientific description in the following review article:

 The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

The syndrome in the general context of blood circulation in:

 The eye and the heart

Glaucoma:  The Flammer syndrome was originally va studied in the context of glaucoma:

The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma

The Flammer syndrome is associated with an increased retinal venous pressure:

The effect of Flammer-syndrome on retinal venous pressure

For more information about retinal venous pressure:

 Retinal venous pressure

Other Diseases: The Flammer syndrome plays a certain role in many diseases, here is an example.


Research that led to the discovery of the Flammer syndrome: