This webpage provides a brief introduction and an overview of the Flammer Syndrome to the interested people. We have provided scientific reference to each statement to improve the readability.
The relevant literatures about this topic are not very homogeneous as the old term was used in the older publications. In addition to this, some publications are in English whereas some are in German. There are both review articles and original articles. Only part of the publications are freely accessible (so-called Open Access).
The following list mainly focus on open access articles.
Terminology: The term Flammer syndrome was sporadically used earlier.
Diseases related with Flammer syndrome
Further reading about Flammer Syndrome
Description for MTAs
Description of FS in Russian
Content: A detailed (easiliy understandable to ordinary people) description of the Flammer Syndrome is available in the fourth edition (German)
and a scientific description in the following review article:
The syndrome in the general context of blood circulation in:
Glaucoma: The Flammer syndrome was originally va studied in the context of glaucoma:
The Flammer syndrome is associated with an increased retinal venous pressure:
For more information about retinal venous pressure:
Other Diseases: The Flammer syndrome plays a certain role in many diseases, here is an example.
- Retinitis pigmentosa and ocular blood flow
- Retinitis pigmentosa
- Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
- Cilioretinal Artery Occlusion
- Choroidal infarction
- Multiple sclerosis
- Perioperative visual loss
- Breast cancer
- Serous Chorioretinopathy (1)
- Serous Chorioretinopathy (2)